En route to East New Britain in remote Papua New Guinea I had been studiously envisioning on how to visualise the cultural significance of Tabu shell money, the official complementary currency in the region. To my very surprise, I’ve encountered much more than just a couple of snail houses on a string. Until today Tabu is deeply anchored in many daily activities and essential substance for any formal or informal gatherings alike. It is the source of social, political, cultural and even spiritual bonding – ergo the vein of people’s life. For one month I have been living among Tolai clans, to be eventually initiated to all local customs. As a result, my multimedia-project reveals intimate, bizarre and droll situations, which I believe the world has never seen before.
Preview of some selected images
Immerse yourself into a whole different world and watch the 7min trailer
Outline „Why shell money matters!“ (> 1100 words)
‚Expect the unexpected’ warns Papua New Guinea its visitors. A promise that comes true in any way. Whilst the modern world is surveying fluctuation and investment opportunities of cryptocurrencies and ditching cashiers in favor of self-service checkouts, the remote province of East New Britain in Papua New Guinea is about to establish several culture bank outlets for easier trading with Tabu shell money’.
This multi-media reportage showcases the cultural importance of shell money for the indigenous Tolai which numbers roughly 120’000 people and explains how an age-old practice has successfully overcome the long-lasting occupations of Germany and Australia, the strong influence of the Catholic education system, and nonetheless, the broad economic development and globalization. Furthermore, this true story from distant lands aims to remind the leading ‚Peter Pan Generation’ on how and why we’re about to forget our ancestral values, not least because of grand advancements in technology and the shift in our communication habits.
It’s been exactly 43 years ago when PNG claimed its independency from Australia, and even today, shell money is deeply anchored in the Tolai culture – it tightens family bonds as well as business cycles. ‘Tabu’ is used on an every day’s basis to barter essential goods in the villages, moreover, it plays a significant role during all cultural activities. Without possession of shell money, there wouldn’t be any initiations, weddings, funeral ceremonies, pig feasts, nor a rigid hierarchy within the Tolai society. Since this tribal art is immensely precious by virtue of the laborious efforts of the making, ‘Tabu’ may even solve a dispute at the traditional court, or it simply shows great respect to a payee. In short, Tabu is the essence of the Tolai’s domestic relations and can’t be replaced with any paper. Decades after the introduction of PNG’s new cash system, as well as ATMs and loan firms, the Tolai are still genuinely affiliated with their marine treasures whilst they’re moving slowly from a self-sufficient lifestyle into the money-driven economy. Hence, they must learn about entrepreneurship and how to juggle with both – the Kina notes & Toea coins, as well as their official complementary currency – Tabu.
The other day, a man cashes out all his available funds from the ATM, then walks inside the branch to hand it over to the accountant, as he doesn’t feel his money being save out there in the machine. Some might be surprised, but in here money is still kinda new thing, tells me a lady working at BSP. „Although loans are not a cultural arrangement, we’re trying to help the people. My microfinance institution offers customers to pay for their microcredits by the means of Tabu (min: 200 Kina/ max. 500 Kina). Sometimes, if a client can’t pay back the loan, we even offer to pay back parts of it in Tabu“, says Sammy Narawangin (CEO of Mataure Rabaul Micro Finance Ltd).
‘The last frontier’, so the western nickname for wild Papua New Guinea! Venturing into the depths of the Bismark-Archipel you will live-experience how the global cancer is creeping into one of the most remote corners on the earth, as tinned fish & soft drinks like Go go-Cola are most likely about to replace a fisherman’s fresh catch and coconut water. And yet, diabetes can’t be cured with bush-medicine, thus a fair amount of a Tolai’s in-house stashed mollusk shells will indirectly be used for paying off hospital fees. At least for the current Tolai generations, it is seemingly impossible that their culture and the traditional way of life which their ancestors have already led is about to vanish. On the contrary, the communities keep the age-old heritage well-alive by pursuing their doctrines and educating male descendants apart from governmental schooling (which are as mostly cross-financed by shell money) in the so-called Nidok – ‘bush university’.
With several exchange hubs in Rabaul and Kokopo the owners of ‘Tabu’ have been given a convenient possibility of selling their shells in case they’d need hard cash pronto to acquire bits and pieces in town which are not payable with dried out snail houses from the Nassariidae (Nassa mud snails in the USA, or dog whelks in the UK). As like buying something from the local pawn shop, there might be shell money on stock or there won’t. However, it became much easier for the indigenous Tolai to buy shells in one of these hubs just before a ceremonial festivity is taking place, instead of asking all neighbors to help out. Meantime, the idea behind the culture exchange bank is to establish a safer storage site for the valuable currency plus to maintain quality control of all circulating shell money. Of course, the bank owner (a sub-firm of the provincial government) will withhold a fair share of roughly 10-15% of each trade.
On East New Britain’s Gazelle Peninsula alone, a circulation of shell money in the value of six to eight million Kina (approx. 2,3 million USD) is estimated, crowning the region to the world’s hotspot for old-fashioned bartering. Because of the increasing demand for Nassariidae shells, mostly caused by the growth of the Tolai population, East New Britain’s shores which were once considered a limitless source of oceanic currency have been emptied in a quite unsustainable manner. These circumstances leave the Tolai society no option, but to import new shell money from nearby PNG provinces or even the Salomon Islands (mainly Honiara), where the ‚crawiling bucks’ are picked by hand. Even the exchange hubs and cultural banks are running out of stock these days, as the months from July till September mark the peak season for cultural ceremonies when large amounts of shell money is needed to fulfill the society’s credo. However, the family of Nassariidae snails can be found worldwide. In a suitable habitat like the Pacific shorelines, this type of mollusk is present in huge numbers. Most of all, they prefer shallow water and crawl around in sandy or muddy sediments right next to the mangroves, but sometimes these marine snails can also be found in deeper waters close to the corals.
Apparently, the Tolai society won’t run out of shell money that soon. And despite the increasing amount of cash & carry outlets and telecom antennas, the clan leaders will do their very best to preserve their rich cultural values by handing down knowledge and the community’s philosophy to their descendants, as collectivism is yet much more important for them than individualism. Some traditional facets are visibly changing – as no Tolai roams through the supermarket aisles in a red ‚Laplap’ skirt these days. Although you’ll see them heading downtown to buy fried chicken drumsticks from the Chinese owned ‚Hot Rooster’ branch and stack the greasy meal into their pre-historic ‚Lovor’ basket made of coconut tree leaves. Hence, it’s common sense that only with the additional support of PNG’s government, the local merchants, the importers and all others who are participating in the ongoing process and trade of the complementary currency, East New Britain’s shell money will have a bright future, culturally as well as economically.
Some of us, especially the so-called ‚Peter Pan Generation’ which combines Millennials and the Generation Z, might have already noticed that with the uprise of dataism and the constant state of flux it evokes, we’re weakening our social ties, and instead, we intensify sort of a lose moral. These days, beyond dispute, we modern beings are getting rid of our cultural heritage and the indoctrinated collectivism nonchalantly in favor of self-determination and steady progress. According to outdated premises – “progress equals happiness”, thus the world’s marketing departments are whipping us into the bright future. In a big picture, this current movement isn’t much more than a tiny pattern in human history though.
Topic Overview (jump to marker, or scroll down)
- Photo Essays and explainations – which situations is ‘Tabu’ used?
- Creating value – From harvest to making
- Everyday practice (Tabu exchange)
- Initiation ‚Subuna’
- Bride price ‚Warkukul’
- Funeral (shell-breaking) ‚Aminamai’
- Kinavai performance
- Act of compensation ‚Varporong’ (Japan and East New Britain reconciliation)
- Additional photo essay about the ongoing modernization
- Current assets of shell money vs. newly Imported shell money and the Cultural Bank (including an interview with East New Britain’s governer Nakikus Konga).
East New Britain and the Tolai
The Tolai ethnicity migrated from New Ireland and settled what is now the province of East New Britain, an island some 200 kilometers off the east coast from Papua New Guinea’s mainland. The ancestors of the Tolai are thought to have migrated to the Gazelle Peninsula in relatively recent times, driving off the earlier settlers from the Baining ethnicity into the mountain areas. One of the main reasons for their migration certainly was the discovery of Nassariidae shells in the shallow water of East New Britain’s shores. On top of the Tolai society are the clan leaders. A Tolai clan leader has to be familiar in detail with Religion (mainly Christianity), ancestral belief system, social issues, economy & politics, and all traditional customs. To increase the social status within their community, every Tolai man ought to accomplish 4 customary stages. These skills are taught in the ‚Bush-University’ (Nidok) which usually last several weeks up to a month for each stage. The teachings include survival skills, social values, how to find the right woman, handicraft, the secrets of the Tubuan – basically anything one can’t learn in schools.
Whilst each person living in the modern world totally depends on money to survive, there is still places on earth where self-sufficiency has overcome modern standards. Food has never been Papua Neuguinea’s problem. The people are all well-fed. Taro, Kau Kau (a big version of sweet potato), pumpkin and other staple food, plus an abundance of coconuts and fruits are harvested all year round. Hunting for protein, such as Fish and bush-animals like wild boars, is still performed in order to maintain a balanced nutrition. There’s even traditional bush-medicine to cure various diseases ranging from Malaria to all sort of aches. Thus, they actually don’t need any money for survival, but for the education of their children. But even if they would not send their children to schools, and instead raise them as their ancestors did, forming them into farmers and hunters, everyone could still survive with ease.
Usage of shell money – Tabu
Only in PNG’s province, East New Britain shell money is used regularly (on a daily bases, mainly from Tolai, but also from the Baining ethnicity). Nearby province New Ireland, autonomous Bougainville or Salomon Islands use different shell types with different values, but not for everyday use, only ceremonial usage (most of all for bride price ceremonies).
Tabu usage in Tolai society – Directly
- Daily barter system in villages (rice, ice cream, cooking oil, sausage, beetle-nuts, cigarettes, peanuts etc.)
- Bride Price ‚Warkukul’ (paying off a women from her parents, so that she can marry)
- Initiation of boys ‚Subuna’ (cultural involvement/ Bush University)
- Funeral and mourning ceremony ‚Aminamai’ (shell breaking – inheritance – among clans)
- Birthday Gift
- Pig feasts (pigs are very precious in the villages) everyone contributes some shell money to get a share, usually 100 Kina (cash) and some Tabu in form of Param (shell money)
- Sacred ground opening Rua Wuapuong Kalamana Ropui
- Compensations (simply to say sorry after a dispute)
- Village court fees – such as paying off for the local justice – disuptes that are solved in the traditional house
- ‚Kinavai’ performance/ cultural play
- Other gatherings and precious events (only the rich man can throw it)
- Political gift – act of compensation „Varporong“ (featured here; the Japan and East New Britain reconciliation)
Tabu usage in Tolai society – Indirectly (after exchange to Kina)
- School fees
- Food essentials in town
- Hospital fees
- Machines for communities (cacao dryer etc.) / cars / household goods
Creating value – From harvest to making (including values & forms of Tabu)
From Nassariidae shell to valuable ‚Tabu’ – step by step
- Harvest (picking, diving, ancient practices)
- Drying in sun until the snails dry out
- Transport (import/ including pest control at Rabaul’s main wharf)
- Getting rid of the smell by the use of degertent like OMO
- Crushing (taking top part off by the use of pliers) – Mostly done by the Tolai individually
- Putting on string, putting string together to form a circle, putting circles together (wheel)
- Storage at home, in traditional clan house, at the local merchant in town, or soon in cultural bank storage room
- Use/ trade
Harvest & Processing
Until 1987 the Tolai had ventured from Lunga Lunga village near Kokopo by the use of sailing canoes towards West New Britain, mostly to a place called Baia. With the arising North-West winds during February till March, they would start their expedition (40-50 people). And they’d sail back together around July with the South-East wind. The family of Nassariidae snails which the Tolai are looking for can be found worldwide. In a suitable habitat like the Pacific shorelines, this type of mollusk is present in huge numbers. Most of all, they prefer shallow water and crawl around in sandy or muddy sediments right next to the mangroves (delta of rivers), but sometimes these marine snails can also be found in deeper waters close to the corals. Harvest Spots: Because of the high demand from the Tolai and the Baining, most grounds in the area of Kokopo and Rabaul have been overharvested. That’s why the shell money users need to buy new shell money from elsewhere. New places like West New Britain (Baia, Bacada, Volvolu) but also in South of West New Britain (Kandrian) are in fashion. But the big scale of new shell money is coming in from Bougainville Cacun Beach (Harvest Paradise), or the Salomon Islands. The islanders from the Salomons know about the demand of the Tolai and see it as a good job opportunity to make some cash. Some other Tolai traders still import from New Ireland but in smaller amounts. In Rabul’s main wharf you’ll experience how modernity and age-old practice are rubbing shoulders. As the ships crance their cargo containers aboard, some with shell money, others with imported products for the whole sales and cash & carry outlets.
Ancient practises (not really up to date any longer – I’ve triple-checked)
- The trap! A young coconut, cut in half and sink it close to the muddy sediment of a mangrove area. Then the snails sneak in and eat, the following day the people pick it up and shake their prey into a basket!
- A special kind of wood. Pealing off the skin and let the wood piece float near a good spot. Then the snails go onto to eat. People just pick the wood again the following day.
- Picking in the slit of a muddy shoreline (close to the mangroves).
- Diving, rowing out close the reef breaks by the use of canoes
Sale of raw material
- Empty 330ml bottle of local SP-Beer filled up with Tabu shell money is sold for 25 Kina.
- But monstly, the raw material are sold in kilograms mostly 10 kg bags for 1’000 kina.
As many Tolais still have a little stock of raw shells back home, they would process their treasure on an individual basis, firstly drilling the shells by the use of a clipping tool (pliers), followed by threading it onto a string of cane. Only Richard Tapil JR’s project site offers deeper insight into how New shell money is processed on a bigger scale. With new laws taking place, Richard’s delivery (some pallets of 10 and 25 kg bags) of freshly harvested Nassariidae shells from the Salomon Islands must first go through the pest control for fumigation when arriving at Rabaul’s main wharf. After the inspection, his workforce will take care of the crushing and the threading, after these steps, the new Tabu is ready to be sold at the markets.
-> The difficulty of collecting and processing the Nassariidae shells prevents the devaluation of Tabu shell money.
Everyday practice (Tabu exchange)
During the ‚Subuna’ – a Tolai boy’s first initiation he will have the chance to accumulate his first shell money in order to understand about the custom. With the event taking place at night, the men will throw the boys onto a ‚Agogo’ (Tabu shell money wheel) which then will be taken apart. Also, the men and women will break Params (bundles of shell money hanging) apart and share it with the relatives of the boys. This ceremony also marks the Kick-off for the Bush-University“. With the initial ceremony, the young boys will be introduced to the first stage of Tolai culture and some secrets of the mysterious Tubuan (the symbol of a clan and meantime the bridge to the spiritual world). Then the initiated boys will go into the bush for some time. Every Tolai man ought to accomplish 4 customary stages. Each level costs a person some shell money (like a cover charge), the higher the stage, the more costly the cover charge. In return, the Tolai men will be taught new skills in the Nidok ‚Bush-University’ which usually last several weeks up to a month for each stage. The teachings include survival skills, social values, how to find the right woman, handicraft – basically anything one can’t learn in schools. Meanwhile, it is strictly forbidden women to learn about the secrets of the Tubuan, even they were the owners of the Tubuan back in the days. Nowadays, the women don’t know anything about the Tubuan’s myths and the legends it involves.
„The youth’s initiation into the Tolai & Tubuan society is very important for our all future and the Tolai’s doctrine. The discipline of youth is falling apart these days. Resulting in street crime and wrong behavior. And worst, they forget about their origins, our culture etc.“ Says John Lote. John actually addresses a serious topic, as in his clan, relatives get occasionally shot by the police because of their Raskal(gangster)-activities.